Journal of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery (JTO) is an International Open access, Double-blind Peer Reviewed Journal Publishing article with contributions from all across the globe related to care and research in the field of Orthopaedics.
Scope of the Journal
Journal of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery (JTO) will focus to integrate knowledge from all resources and create a common wisdom pool. The focus of the journal will be clinical, medical, and surgical aspects of orthopaedics but will also extend to include Basic sciences, clinical trials, molecular biology; genetics, pathology; radiodiagnosis, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, biomechanics; biomaterials; nanotechnology; and also special prosthesis designs. This journal primarily aims to cater to clinicians, researchers, and health-care providers whose focus is on the understanding and treatment of bone and soft tissue diseases
the Journal of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery (JTO) will be an international Open Access, Double-blind Peer Reviewed Journal with contributions from all across the globe.
The Journal will include many focused and novel features including those listed below:
GUEST EDITORIALS, INTERVIEWS & EXPERT OPINIONS: These will be invited from eminent clinicians/researchers who have vast experience in the field of Orthopaedics.
CASE REPORT: A single case that highlights a particular complication along with treatment strategy and methods of management of a unique/difficult/complicated case.
ORIGINAL ARTICLES: Original articles on any study focused on surgical or nonsurgical treatment modality of treatment.
BASIC SCIENCE: Original and review articles from the field of basic research in bone diseases including genetic studies, histopathological developments, and biomechanical studies.
PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES: Especially clinical trials and articles related to innovative drugs and medical management of orthopaedic diseases.
ALLIED SCIENCES: Articles from allied branches like radiotherapy, radiodiagnostics, interventional radiology, and rehabilitation sciences would also be accepted in the Journal of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery (JTO).
TECHNICAL NOTES: Specific technical tricks and pearls or improvisations during surgery or conservative management of a patient can be published in a more pictorial form including videos and graphic diagrams.
CASE IMAGE: Only a single image of a unique case can spark a full-fledged discussion on the diagnosis and treatment. This section will aim to publish such images with detailed descriptions of the case.
COMPLEX & COMPLICATED CASES: A primarily complex or complicated case that is difficult to manage with multiple factors in clinical decision making. Management protocol with a decision-making flowchart will be included in this.
CASE STUDY: The other spectrum to the primary complex case is multiple operated cases that now presents with unique decision-making scenarios which are complex and need personalized thought processes and management plans. The most focus will be on the rationale of management and ultimate result. The patient perspective will also form a part of every case study.
LITERATURE REVIEW: In form of special review, metanalysis, or systematic reviews focussed on one particular complication or complicated case.
LETTER TO EDITOR: On any topic or article that is published in the journal. Readers can share their own similar cases as published in the Journal.
The Journal of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery (JTO)
Instructions for Authors
Authors should submit their manuscripts online using the online electronic submission system ‘Scripture’ developed for this journal by the Indian Orthopaedic Research Group (IORG).
Please Click Here if you are ready to submit your article.
There are no charges for submitting the manuscript or for peer review and decision on the manuscript. Authors will usually receive a decision on their manuscript within 8-10 weeks.
All manuscripts are to be submitted via the Journal submission software ‘Scripture’ on the website www.jtojournal.com Any other query regarding article formatting for the submission process can also be mailed to All manuscripts are to be submitted via the Journal submission software ‘Scripture’ on the website www.jtojournal.com Any other query regarding article formatting for submission process can also be mailed to editor.JTO@gmail.com
Copyright Agreement and Contribution letter
The entire contents of the Journal of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery are protected under India and international copyrights. However, the Journal grants to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, perform and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works in any digital medium for any reasonable non-commercial purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship and ownership of the rights. The journal also grants the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal non-commercial use under Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share Alike 4.0 International Public License. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/
Acceptance or rejection
Manuscripts are judged on the interest and importance of the topic, intellectual and scientific strength, clarity of presentation, and relevance to Journal of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery readers.
Copyright form: Download here
All authors of articles must disclose any and all conflicts of interest they may have with the publication of the manuscript or an institution or product that is mentioned in the manuscript and/or is important to the outcome of the study presented. Authors should also disclose the conflict of interest with products that compete with those mentioned in their manuscript. If the articles are authored by the editorial board, the conflict of interest must be clearly stated.
Conflict of Interest forms are according to Guidelines by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and Each Authors details have to be filled separately and submitted with the manuscript. Plagiarism is not permitted and Journal will check every article for plagiarism using ‘iThenticate’ and google search.
Conflict of Interest form: Download here
Article submission Charges: None
Journal of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery is Open access, Double-blind peer-reviewed journal. There are no charges for submitting or for peer review and decision on the manuscript. Authors will usually receive a decision on their manuscript within 8-10 weeks.
All manuscripts are to be submitted via the Journal submission software on the website. Any other query regarding article formatting for the submission process can also be mailed to editor.JTO@gmail.com
Instructions for Manuscript Preparation
Manuscripts should be written in English. Authors whose native language is not English should seek the assistance of a colleague who is a native English speaker and familiar with the field of the work. Authors are advised to follow the recommendations in the “Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication” proposed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (www.icmje.org). Manuscripts must be typed double-spaced with wide margins on A4 paper. The manuscript parts should be in the following order, with each section beginning on a new page: title page, abstract, text, acknowledgments, references, tables, figure legends, and figures. Number all lines in a continuous manner and number all pages in the bottom right corner beginning with the title page. For reports on randomized control studies, authors should refer to the CONSORT statement (www.consort-statement.org). Standard abbreviations and SI units should be used. Define abbreviations at first appearance in the text, figure legends, and tables, and avoid their use in the title and abstract. Use generic names of drugs and chemicals.
Journal of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery accepts following formats of articles
- Case Reports
- Original articles
- Reviews, meta-analysis, systematic reviews
- Case Study /Series
- Case Image
- Technical Note
- Letter to Editor
- Letter to Experts
Description of various formats is provided below
Original Articles: include case series, comparative trials, epidemiological studies, and RCT’s
Case Reports: Have been detailed below and all the remaining formats follow similar guidelines as case reports
Case Image: is a description of a single Image that has an unique learning point
Technical Note and Video Technique: detailed description of a new technique or improvisation of an old technique
Letter to Editor: on articles in the journal. Letters should be typed double-spaced and limited to 1000 words. A copy of the letter will be sent to the previous article’s author(s) to invite a response.
Following files will be essential for submission of any kind of article
– Cover letter
– Title page
– Blinded manuscript
– Copyright Letter: Download Here
– Patient Consent Form: Download Here
– Conflict of Interest form: Download Here
The details of formatting these files are provided below.
Manuscripts submitted to the journal must be submitted in the format described below. Articles that do not meet the journal’s style will not be peer-reviewed or considered for publication. All articles should be no more than 3500 words long with a maximum of 50 references and 10 figures. Manuscripts should also contain an abstract of up to 350 words. The article will only be accepted for peer review in the following format:
Material and Methods
Illustrations and figures:
Figure legends (if any):
Additional data files (if any):
List of abbreviations used (if any):
Conflict of interests: To be downloaded from the website and a signed copy scanned and submitted along with manuscript
Acknowledgments and Funding:
Copyright Form: [Download Here]
Manuscripts should be submitted in Microsoft Word Document format
Cover Letter: This is the official letter written to editors by the author, where they can inform the editorial board about the significance of their study. They can also inform regarding special situations like shared data with another study or long-term follow-up of the already published articles. This also provides the chance for authors to interact directly with the editorial board and put up any specific point for considerations like more number of authors, manuscript exceeding word count, or figure count.
The title should be concise and informative to make electronic retrieval of the manuscript both effective and specific. Include important information such as the study design, i.e., clinical or basic, and in particular, indicate if the study is a randomized control trial. A running title not exceeding 35 letters and spaces should be provided.
Example of Title Page
The first page of the manuscript should be a dedicated title page, including the title of the article. The title should include the study design, i.e. Case report. For example
Authors Names should appear in sequence that will be final, with superscript numbers mentioning authors affiliations
Author Name A1, Author Name B2, Author Name C3*
Address: 1 Full designation, degree, and postal address of author A; 2 Full designations, degree and postal address of author B; 3 Full designations, degree and postal address of author C
* Corresponding author should be indicated with an asterisk.
The full names, institutional addresses, and email addresses of all authors must be included on the title page. No other information should be included on this page.
The page should contain the article title, the full names of the authors including only major qualifications such as M.D. or Ph.D., and the complete postal address of the department and institution where the work was done. Designate one author as a correspondent and supply his or her complete postal address, telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address. If the name or address for offprint requests is different, this should be stated. Every person listed as an author should have materially participated in the design, execution, and analysis of the study and should verify the accuracy of the entire manuscript before its submission. No more than 6 authors can be included on the title page. Lesser contributors may be noted in an acknowledgment section at the end of the manuscript.
Authorship criteria are as per the ICMJE Guidelines and include Authorship credit should be based only on substantial contributions:
- To conception and design or acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data
- Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content
- Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or the collection of data does not justify authorship
- General supervision of the research group is not sufficient for authorship
- The order of naming the contributors should be based on the relative contribution of the contributor. Once submitted the order cannot be changed without the written consent of all the contributors
For an original article the number of contributors should not exceed six; for case reports, letter to the Editor, and review articles, the number of contributors should not exceed four. A justification should be included if the number of contributors exceeds these limits.
Only those who have done substantial work in a particular field can write a review article. A short summary of the work done in the field of review should accompany the manuscript.
Example to state Author’s Contributions
We suggest the following kind of format (please use initials to refer to each author’s contribution):
“FC analyzed and interpreted the patient data regarding the fracture disease and the stiffness. RH performed the histological examination of the callus, and was a major contributor in writing the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance or a department chair who provided only general support.
Author information should not be included in the main document. Authors should submit the title page, the main document, and the Pictures separately. To ensure blinding, authors should not include in the abstract or text the name or initials of the authors or the institution at which the study was performed. Refer to your own published work in the third person. Use “In the previous work of Author name et al.”, not “In our previous work.” The blinded manuscript should contain title, abstract, keywords, main article with references, tables, and figure legends
Abstract: This should start on page 2 of the manuscript. The abstract must not exceed 350 words. Do not use abbreviations or references in the abstract. The structured abstract should consist of four paragraphs: Background (including the context and purpose of the research), Methods, Results, and Conclusions. The abstract should be typed on a separate page, and should not include abbreviations, footnotes, or references. The abstract should make clear how the paper adds to the Orthopaedic literature:
Keywords: Add 3 to 5 keywords at the end of the abstract. MESH terms will be preferable
Blinded Manuscript: The length of the text and references should not exceed 15 pages of double-spaced type. The number of figures and tables together should not exceed 20. Do not repeat in the text all data that appear in the tables or illustrations; emphasize or summarize only important observations. A conclusion may be included in the summary paragraph of the Discussion only if it is not redundant.
The blinded manuscript should not contain the names of the author or their institute. References should be numbered in order of appearance and should be placed in square brackets . The manuscript is usually, but not necessarily, divided into sections with the headings Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and Clinical Relevance. Long articles may need section subheadings to clarify their content.
Introduction: should explain the background of the case, including the disorder, usual presentation and progression, and an explanation of the presentation if it is a new disease. If it is a case discussing an adverse drug interaction the introduction should give details of the drug’s common use and any previously reported side effects. It should also include a brief literature review.
Material & Methods should be sufficiently detailed to allow easy understanding and reproduction of the study. Details of study design, outcome measures, outcome assessors, and statistical methods have to be provided here. Surgical technique should be described in detail with photographs and videos [videos should be uploaded on Youtube and link to be submitted to us]
Results: Keep results very succinct and to the point. Write all data in mean ± SD [Range] with appropriate standard units. Mention p values till third decimal points. Use tables to display the numerical data. Do not interpret the results in this section. Provide details of complication events and their individual follow-ups
Discussion: should be elaborate and should focus on the main results of your study. Individual complications should be addressed separately and put in context with the current literature.
Clinical relevance: of the study should be mentioned in three or four sentences
Abbreviations (if any)
If abbreviations are used in the text they should either be defined in the text where first used, or a list of abbreviations can be provided.
This section is compulsory. It should provide a statement to confirm that the patient has given their informed consent for the case report to be published. You do not need to send the form to us on submission, but we may request to see a copy at any stage (including after publication
Please declare whether competing interest exists. A competing interest exists when your interpretation of data or presentation of information may be influenced by your personal or financial relationship with other people or organizations. Where an author gives no competing interests, the listing must read: “The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests”. Download Conflict of Interest form [Click Here]
Please acknowledge anyone who contributed towards the study by making substantial contributions to conception, design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, or who was involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content, but who do not meet the criteria for authorship.
Policy against Plagiarism
The Journal follows strict anti-plagiarism policy and defines plagiarism as the duplicate publication of the author’s own work, in whole or in part without proper citation, or mispresenting other’s ideas, words, and other creative expressions as one’s own. All manuscripts submitted to the Journal of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery (JTO) undergo plagiarism check with the commercially available software iThenticate. Only in cases of minor duplication or similarity with previously published work, the authors may be provided an opportunity to rectify the same; in all other cases, the manuscript is desk rejected along with the plagiarism report (please also see the Scientific Misconduct section for additional details).
References: Authors are responsible for verifying the accuracy and completeness of the references. The number of references should not exceed 50. The style of the references should follow the MEDLINE/ PubMed Journal Article Citation Format found at the National Center for Bibliography Information [NCBI] Website where specific reference citations can be searched for. Abbreviations of journal names must conform to those used in MEDLINE/PubMed. Avoid using abstracts as references. In the references, do not list personal communications and unpublished material (including oral and poster presentations and manuscripts not yet accepted for publication).
All references must be numbered consecutively, in square brackets, in the order in which they are cited in the text, followed by any in tables or legends. The must be no more than 50 references listed, e.g.
For an article within a journal:
Bentolila V, Nizard R, Bizot P, Sedel L. Complete traumatic brachial plexus palsy. Treatment and outcome after repair. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1999;81:20-8.
For a book chapter, or article within a book
Songcharoen P. Neurotization in the treatment of brachial plexus injury. In: Omer G, Spinner M, van Beek A, editors. Management of peripheral nerve problems. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1998. p. 459-64.
If a non-English-language reference is listed, the original language should be indicated, as shown in the following sample:
Journal article not in English
Otani T, Hayashi S, Ueno Y, Hayashi H, Kato T, Tamegai H, Fujii K. Long-term radiographic evaluation of muscle release operation for arthritis of the hip: comparison study between the results of muscle release and the natural history of osteoarthritis. Rinshou Seikeigeka (Clinical Orthopaedic Surgery) 2004;39:921–6 (in Japanese).
Case Reports: Case reports will be considered for publication if they contribute to an understanding of the diagnosis, treatment, and/or pathogenesis of diseases related to orthopaedic surgery. Manuscripts should include the headings Introduction, Report of the case, and Discussion. Do not forget to clearly indicate that consent for publication has been obtained from the patient or his/her nearest relative.
Case Image: is description of a single Image which has an unique learning point. It should not exceed 1000 words and should have headings of abstract, keywords, case image, discussion, conclusion, clinical message, references, figures and figure legends.
Review Articles: These are commissioned, as authors are invited by the editor to contribute review articles.
Letter to the Editor: Letters to the editor of sufficient interest about published articles will be considered for publication. Letters should be typed double-spaced and limited to 1000 words. A copy of the letter will be sent to the previous article’s author(s) to invite a response.
Preparing illustrations and figures:
Please note that the Journal of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery (JTO) can only publish ten figures in each article. If you have more than ten figures and feel that all are essential to the understanding, please make this clear in your covering letter, explaining why the figures are needed. Figures and tables should be sequentially referenced. Authors should include all relevant supporting data with each article.
Figures should be provided as separate files and should not be included in the main text of the submitted manuscript or include within them the figure legend. Each figure should comprise only a single file. There is no charge for the use of color. Authors should make every effort to preserve the anonymity of the patient by removing or concealing any identifiable features, including birthmarks and tattoos. Please take extra care with images of the head and face, ensuring that only the relevant features are shown. Publication of facial images will be subject to approval by the Editor-in-Chief.
The following file formats can be accepted:
EPS (preferred format for diagrams)
PNG (preferred format for photos or images)
HIGH-RESOLUTION PICTURES ARE NECESSARY
Figure legends: No more than 10 figures per article is accepted. For each figure, the following information should be provided: Figure number (in sequence, using Arabic numerals – i.e. Figure 1, 2, 3 etc); short title of figure (maximum 15 words); detailed legend, up to 300 words. Figures should be provided as separate files. The legends should be included in the main manuscript text file rather than being a part of the figure file. For each figure, the following information should be provided: Figure number (in sequence, using Arabic numerals – i.e. Figure 1, 2, 3 etc); short title of figure (maximum 15 words); detailed legend, up to 300 words. The legend should include a brief description of the exact location of the image on the patient, the type of image (e.g. micrograph/x-ray), and time in relation to progression e.g. one week after surgery. There must be no abbreviations unless they are expanded (excluding common abbreviations such as antibodies). Please note that it is the responsibility of the author(s) to obtain permission from the copyright holder to reproduce figures or tables that have previously been published elsewhere.
Tables: to be added to the blinded manuscript after the references. Tables should be given a brief, informative title and numbered consecutively in the order of their citation in the text. Type each table double spaced on a separate page. Use the table function in MICROSOFT WORD, not spreadsheets, to make tables. Tables must be no larger than a single sheet of A4 paper. The table number and title should appear above the table, and the definition of all abbreviations, levels of statistical significance, and additional information should appear below the table.
Preparing tables: Each table should be numbered in sequence using Arabic numerals (i.e. Table 1, 2, 3, etc.). Tables should also have a title that summarizes the whole table, a maximum of 15 words. Detailed legends may then follow, but should be concise.
Smaller tables considered to be integral to the manuscript can be pasted into the document text file. Such tables should be formatted using the ‘Table object’ in a word processing program to ensure that columns of data are kept aligned when the file is sent electronically for review.
Tabular data provided as additional files can be uploaded as an Excel spreadsheet (.xls) or comma-separated values (.csv). As with all files, please use the standard file extensions.
JTO also allows movies and/or animations to be included as additional files and allows movies to be viewed in the context of the article. Video files should be sent to us by email to editor.JTO@gmail.com or can be uploaded to youtube and link send to us.
Additional data files should be referenced explicitly by file name within the body of the article, e.g. ‘See additional file 1: Movie1 for the original data used to perform this analysis.
Copyright Form: To be downloaded from the website and a signed copy scanned and submitted along with manuscript
Ethics: It is the responsibility of the authors to assure that all clinical investigations detailed in manuscripts submitted to the journal are conducted in accordance with the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki (www.wma.net/ en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html). All case reports must include a statement indicating that informed consent has been obtained from the patient or appropriate persons for publication, including any necessary photographs. An example of such a statement would be “The patients and/or their families were informed that data from the case would be submitted for publication and gave their consent.” Do not use patients’ names, initials, institutional ID numbers, or other identifying information. Articles, including their study design, originating from a particular institution are assumed to be submitted with the approval of the requisite authority on ethical issues. Articles describing research involving human subjects must include a statement in the Materials and methods section indicating that approval was given by the institutional review board (IRB) or Ethics committee of the institution and that informed consent was obtained from each patient or candidate. Manuscripts reporting animal experiments must include a statement in the Materials and methods section indicating that approval was obtained from the institutional review board and that animal care complied with the guidelines of the authors’ institution or any national law on the care and use of laboratory animals.
Protection of Patients’ Rights to Privacy
Identifying information should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, sonograms, CT scans, etc., and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent/guardian, wherever applicable) provides informed consent for publication. Authors should remove patients’ names from figures unless they have obtained informed consent from the patients. The journal abides by the ICMJE guidelines:
1. Authors, and not the Journal or its Publisher, need to obtain the patient consent form before submitting their work for publication consideration to the Journal of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery (JTO). Authors should ensure that this patient consent form(s) are properly archived. The consent forms should not be uploaded with the cover letter or sent through email to the Editorial or Publisher offices.
2. If the manuscript contains patient images that preclude anonymity or a description that has an obvious indication of the identity of the patient, a statement about obtaining informed patient consent should be indicated in the manuscript.
3. To protect the patient’s identity, the recognizable facial features not related to the study should be digitally blurred
4. Written informed consent is the preferred method for obtaining consent. If verbal consent is obtained, the authors must ensure that the verbal consent is recorded in the medical case record of the patient and duly signed by witnesses.
Patient consent form: Download here
Style and language
General: Currently, JTO can only accept manuscripts written in English. Spelling should be US English or British English, but not a mixture.
It is essential that submitted manuscripts have a high standard of written English. Manuscripts that are poorly written will be returned to authors for revision prior to peer review. Authors are advised to write clearly and simply and to have their articles checked by colleagues before submission. Non-native speakers of English may choose to make use of a copyediting service before submission.
Journal of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery (JTO) will copy-edit accepted manuscripts before they are published. The editing is designed only to correct such things as misused words, spelling errors, missing references or incomplete citation information.
Sending a revised manuscript
The revised version of the manuscript should be submitted online in a manner similar to that used for the submission of the manuscript for the first time. However, there is no need to submit the “First Page” or “Covering Letter” file while submitting a revised version. When submitting a revised manuscript, contributors are requested to include, the ‘referees’ remarks along with point-to-point clarification at the beginning of the revised file itself. In addition, they are expected to mark the changes as underlined or colored text in the article.
Complaints and Appeals
This procedure applies to complaints about the publishing policies, procedures, and/or actions of the Journal of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery’ Editorial staff. This complaint must relate to content or a procedure that was the responsibility of the Journal of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery (JTO) or its Editor.
If the authors strongly believe that their manuscript was wrongly rejected, they can register an appeal with the Journal by emailing a detailed explanation to editor.JTO@gmail.com
The appeals will be acknowledged by the Editorial office and will be investigated in an unbiased manner. While under appeal, the said manuscript should not be submitted to other journals. The final decision rests with the Editor-in-Chief, and second appeals are not considered.
The Journal only accepts complaints through the above-mentioned e-mail, as this provides a reliable trail. All complaints are acknowledged at the earliest. The complaint would be followed up in an unbiased manner and be handled by the person to whom they are made, if possible. The Journal aims to resolve any complaint raised within 2–4 weeks; however, if that is not possible, an interim response would be provided until the complaint is resolved.
Please use double line spacing.
Type the text unjustified, without hyphenating words at line breaks.
Abbreviations spelt out in full for the first time
Numerals from 1 to 10 spelt out
Numerals at the beginning of the sentence spelt out
Use hard returns only to end headings and paragraphs, not to rearrange lines.
Capitalize only the first word, and proper nouns, in the title.
All pages should be numbered.
Use the Journal of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery (JTO) reference format.
Footnotes to text should not be used.
Greek and other special characters may be included. If you are unable to reproduce a particular special character, please type out the name of the symbol in full.
Gene names should be in italic, but protein products should be in plain type.
Please ensure that all special characters used are embedded in the text, otherwise, they will be lost during manuscript processing.
Genes, mutations, genotypes, and alleles should be indicated in italics, and authors are required to use approved gene symbols, names, and formatting. Protein products should be in plain type.
Units: SI Units should be used throughout (liter and molar are permitted, however).
Electronic figure submission
- Supply all figures electronically.
- Indicate what graphics program was used to create the artwork.
- For vector graphics, the preferred format is EPS; for halftones, please use TIFF format. MS Office files are also acceptable.
- Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.
- Name your figure files with “Fig” and the figure number, e.g., Fig1.eps.
- Definition: Black and white graphic with no shading.
- Do not use faint lines and/or lettering, and check that all lines and lettering within the figures are legible at final size.
- All lines should be at least 0.1 mm (0.3 pt) wide.
- Scanned line drawings and line drawings in bitmap format should have a minimum resolution of 1200 dpi.
- Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.
- Definition: Photographs, drawings, or paintings with fine shading, etc.
- If any magnification is used in the photographs, indicate this by using scale bars within the figures themselves.
- Halftones should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi.
- Definition: a combination of halftone and line art, e.g., halftones containing line drawing, extensive lettering, colour diagrams, etc.
- Combination artwork should have a minimum resolution of 600 dpi.
- Colour art is free of charge for online publication.
- If black and white will be shown in the print version, make sure that the main information will still be visible. Many colours are not distinguishable from one another when converted to black and white. A simple way to check this is to make a xerographic copy to see if the necessary distinctions between the different colours are still apparent.
- If the figures will be printed in black and white, do not refer to colour in the captions.
- Colour illustrations should be submitted as RGB (8 bits per channel).
- To add lettering, it is best to use Helvetica or Arial (sans-serif fonts).
- Keep lettering consistently sized throughout your final-sized artwork, usually about 2–3 mm (8–12 pt).
- The variance of type size within an illustration should be minimal, e.g., do not use 8-pt type on an axis and 20-pt type for the axis label.
- Avoid effects such as shading, outline letters, etc.
- Do not include titles or captions in your illustrations.
- All figures are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
- Figures should always be cited in the text in consecutive numerical order.
- Figure parts should be denoted by lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.).
- If an appendix appears in your article/chapter and it contains one or more figures, continue the consecutive numbering of the main text. Do not number the appendix figures, “A1, A2, A3, etc.” Figures in online appendices (Electronic supplementary material) should, however, be numbered separately.
- Each figure should have a concise caption describing accurately what the figure depicts. Include the captions in the text file of the manuscript, not in the figure file.
- Figure captions begin with the term Fig. in bold type, followed by the figure number, also in bold type.
- No punctuation is to be included after the number, nor is any punctuation to be placed at the end of the caption.
- Identify all elements found in the figure in the figure caption; and use boxes, circles, etc., as coordinate points in graphs.
- Identify previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference citation at the end of the figure caption.
Figure placement and size
- When preparing your figures, size figures to fit in the column width.
- For most journals, the figures should be 39 mm, 84 mm, 129 mm, or 174 mm wide and not higher than 234 mm.
The publisher reserves the right to reduce or enlarge figures.
It is the responsibility of authors/contributors to obtain permission for reproducing any copyrighted material. A copy of the permission obtained must accompany the manuscript. Copies of any and all published articles or other manuscripts in preparation or submitted elsewhere that are related to the manuscript must also accompany the manuscript.
Dr Ashok Shyam
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